Bill No.
2-14
Concerning: Environmental Sustainabilitv
- Buildings - Benchmarking
Draft No._6_
Revised:
4/22/2014
Introduced:
January
28. 2014
Enacted:
Apn122.2014
Executive:
May
1. 2014
Effective:
July
31,2014
Sunset Date: __
N:..:::o::!.n~e_---,,-
_ _ __
ChI _6_, Laws of Mont. Co.
2014
COUNTY COUNCIL
FOR MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MARYLAND
By: Councilmembers Berliner, Floreen, Riemer, Andrews and Navarro
AN
ACT
to:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)]]
require the owners of
certain
buildings to benchmark the energy use of certain
buildings;
require the Director of the Department of [[permitting Services]] Environmental
Protection to issue an annual report to review and evaluate energy efficiency in
certain covered buildings;
require the Director make certain benchmarking information readily available to the
public;
allow the Director to waive certain requirements; [[and]]
[[require the owners of certain buildings to have an energy audit performed on
certain buildings;
require the owners of certain buildings to· assure that retro-commissioning is
performed on certain buildings; and
establish a Benchmarking Work Group to review the implementation of Chapter
lSA. Article 6 and report to the Council and Executive with recommendations on
implementing building benchmarking for privately-owned buildings: and
generally amend County law regarding energy efficiency and environmental
sustainability.
By adding
Montgomery County Code
Chapter 1SA, Environmental Sustainability
Article
5
Sections lSA-34, 18A-35, 18A-36, and 18A-37
Article
6
Sections [[lSA-3S, ISA-37,]] ISA-3S, lSA-39, lSA-40, ISA-41, lSA-42, and ISA-43
[[Article 7
Sections lSA-44, ISA-45, lSA-46, ISA-47, lSA-4S, lSA-49, and lSA-50]]
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BILL
No. 2-14
Boldface
Underlining
[Single boldface brackets]
Double underlining
[[Double boldface bracketsD
* * *
Heading or defined term.
Added to existing law by original bill.
Deletedfrom existing law
by
original bill.
Added by amendment.
Deletedfrom existing law or the bill by amendment.
Existing law unaffected by bill.
The County Council for Montgomery County, Maryland approves the following Act:
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BILL
No.
2-14
1
Sec.
1.
Chapter 18A is amended
by
[[adding]] amending Article 5 to add
Sections 18A-34, 18A-35, 18A-36, and 18A-37; Article 6, consisting of Sections
18A-38, 18A-39, 18A-40, 18A-41, 18A-42, and 18A-43[[; and Article 7,
consisting of Sections 18A-44, 18A-45, 18A-46, 18A-47, 18A-48, 18A-49, and
18A-50]] as follows:
Article 5. Commercial Property Assessed Clean Energy Program.
18A-34
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
=
18A-37. Reserved.
Article 6. Building Energy Use Benchmarking.
Definitions.
~
18A-38.
10
11
In
this Article, the following words have the meanings indicated:
Benchmark
means to track and input
building'S energy consumption data
12
13
and other relevant building information for 12 consecutive months, as
required.Qy the benchmarking tool, to quantify the building's energy use.
Benchmarking tool
means the website-based software, commonly known as
14
15
16
17
18 .
19
ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager, or any successor system, developed
and maintained .Qy the United States Environmental Protection Agency to
track and assess the relative energy use of buildings nationwide.
Certificate
gf
use and occupancy
means the certificate issued .Qy the Director
that allows
~
building to be occupied and used.
County building
means any building owned
by
the County. or any group of
20
21
buildings owned by the County that have the same propertY identification
number. that equals or exceeds 50.000 square feet gross floor area. as
identified by the Director
Covered building
means any [[building owned by the]) County building,
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23
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25
Group
1
covered buildin& or Group
~
covered building[L as defined in this
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BILL NO. 2-14
26
Article
]].=.
Covered building
does not include any building with more than
10% occupancy which is used for
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31
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33
ill
ill
~
public assembly in
~
building without walls;
warehousing;
self storage; or
~
ill
use classified as manufacturing and industrial or transportation,
~
communication, and utilities.
Data center
means
space designed and equipped to meet the needs of
high
34
35
36
density computing equipment such as server racks, used for data storage and
processing, as defined
Qy
the benchmarking tool.
Department
means the Department of lW-ermitting Services]] Environmental
37
Protection.
Director
means the Director of the Department or the Director's designee.
Energy performance score
or
ENERGY STAR
score means the numerical
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39
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42
score produced
Qy
the benchmarking tool, or any successor score, that
assesses
~
building'S energy performance compared to similar bUildings,
based on source energy use, operating characteristics, and geographic
location.
Energy use intensity
or
EUI
means
~
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44
45
46
47
numeric value calculated
Qy
the
~
benchmarking tool that represents the energy consumed
Qy
relative to its size.
building
Group
1
covered building
means any nonresidential building, or any group
48
of nonresidential buildings that have the same property identification
number, not owned by the County that equals or exceeds 250,000 square feet
gross floor area, as identified
Qy
the Director.
Group
49
50
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2.
covered building
means any nonresidential building, or any group
of nonresidential buildings that have the same property identification
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BILL
No. 2-14
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number, not owned by the County that equals or exceeds 50,000 square feet
gross floor area but is less than 250,000 square feet gross floor area, as
identified by the Director.
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Gross floor area
means the sum of the gross horizontal area of the several
floors of
~
building or structure measured from the exterior faces of the
~
exterior walls or from the center line of
unenclosed area, such as
~
walls.
~
In
~
covered but
set of gasoline pumps or
drive-through area,
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gross floor area means the covered area.
Gross floor area
does not include
any:
[£W]]
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ill
basement or attic area with
~
headroom less than
I
~
feet
Q
inches;
[[ill]]
area devoted to unenclosed mechanical, heating, air conditioning,
or ventilating equipment;
[[(£}]]
[[@]]
ill
parking structure; or
~
66
accessory structure to
~
residential building.
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68
Licensed professional
means
~
professional engineer or
~
registered architect
licensed in the State, or another trained individual as defined in applicable
County regulations.
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Reported benchmarking information
means the descriptive information
about
~
building, its operating characteristics, and information generated
Qy
the benchmarking tool regarding the building's energy consumption and
efficiency.
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Reported benchmarking information
includes the building
identification number, address, gross floor area, energy performance score,
energy use intensity, and annual greenhouse gas emissions.
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Residential occupancy
means the occupancy of dwelling units
building that includes one or more dwellings.
In
any
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BILL
No. 2-14
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18A-39.
Energy !!!!! benchmarking.
W
County buildings.
No later
than
June
1.
2015. and every June 1
thereafter. the County must benchmark all buildings owned by the
County for the previous calendar year.
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au
Group
1
covered buildings.
No later than [[June
L
2014]] December
1.
2016, and every [[June]] December
1
thereafter, the owner of any
Group
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1
covered building must benchmark the building for the
[[However, the owner of any Group
previous calendar year.
1
covered building with at least 10% residential occupancy. as measured
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Qy
square footage, must benchmark the building for the previous
calendar year no later than June
L
2015, and no later than June 1st
each year thereafter.]]
The owner must report the benchmarking
information to the Department no later
than
[[July]] Januarv
year.
[[(hl]]
1
each
!£l
Group
1
covered buildings.
No later than [[June
L
2015]]
93
December
1.
2017, and [[no later than June 1st each year]] evety
December 1 thereafter. the owner of any Group
~
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covered building
must benchmark the building for the previous calendar year.
[[However, the owner of any Group
~
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covered building with 10% or
more residential occupancy must benchmark the building for the
previous calendar year no later than June
L
2016, and no later than
June 1st each year thereafter.]]
Januarv
1
each year.
The owner must report the
benchmarking information to the Department no later than [[July]]
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103
104
@
Waiver.
The Director may waive the requirements of this Section if
the owner of
~
covered building documents, in
~
form required
Qy
regulation, that the building:
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No. 2-14
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ill
is in financial distress, defmed as !l building that:
(A)
is the subject of
~
tax lien sale or public auction due to
property tax arrearages;
ill}
is controlled
.Qy
!l court appointed receiver; or
was recently acquired
.Qy
~
deed in lieu of foreclosure;
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(Q
ill
ill
had average physical occupancy of less than 50% throughout
the calendar year for which benchmarking is required; or
is new construction and received its certificate of use and
occupancy during the calendar year for which benchmarking is
required.
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115
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18A-40.
Data Verification.
Verification required.
Before the first benchmarking deadline
required
.Qy
Section 18A-39, and before each third benchmarking
deadline thereafter, the owner of each covered building must assure
that reported benchmarking information for that year is verified
.Qy
~
licensed professional. The verification must be !l stamped and signed
statement
.Qy
!l licensed professional attesting to the accuracy of the
information. If the Director requests, the owner of
~
covered building
must produce the statement available for the most recent year in
which verification was required.
W
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(hl
Waiver.
The Director may waive the requirements of this Section if
the owner shows that compliance with this Section will cause undue
financial hardship.
If!l no-cost or low-cost verification option is
available, the Director may require the owner to use the alternative
option.
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BILL NO.
2-14
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18A-41.
Solicitation of compliance information from tenants.
ill
Solicitation gf infOrmation from tenant.
An
owner of
~
covered
~
building must request relevant information from any tenant in
covered building no later than March
notice that
~
1
of each year in which
benchmarking is required
Qy
Section 18A-39. If the owner receives
tenant intends to vacate
~
unit which is subject to this
Section, the owner must request the information within 10 days after
receiving the notice to vacate.
@
Tenant response.
Within 30 days after receIvmg
~
request for
~
information from the building owner, each tenant of
unit in
~
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covered building must provide the building owner with all
information that the owner cannot otherwise acquire that is necessary
to comply with this Article.
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144
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146
W
Failure gftenant to provide infOrmation.
ill
If any tenant does not provide the information required under
this Section to the owner of
~
covered building, that fact does
not relieve the owner of the obligation to benchmark the
building under Section 18A-39, using all information otherwise
available to the owner.
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152
ill
If
~
tenant of
~
unit in
i!
covered building does not provide
information to the owner of the building under this Section, the
Director must consider the owner to be in compliance with
Section 18A-39 if:
(A)
the owner shows that the owner requested the tenant to
provide the information under this Section; and
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BILL No. 2-14
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Q)
18A-42.
ill)
the owner benchmarked the building under Section
18A­
39, using all information otherwise available to the
owner.
Annual report; disclosure of benchmarking information.
W
Annual report required.
By October
1
of each year, the Director must
submit
~
benchmarking report to the County Executive and County
Council. The report must review and evaluate energy efficiency in
covered buildings, including:
ill
ill
summary statistics on the most recent reported energy
benchmarking information; [[and]]
discussion of any energy efficiency trends, cost savings, and job
creation resulting from energy efficiency improvements; and
for County buildings:
La)
the scores of County buildings benchmarked: and
all
whether the Director recommends any energy efficiency
improvements for specific buildings.
(hl
Disclosure
Q[
benchmarking information.
The Director must make
reported benchmarking information readily available to the public,
including on the open data website created under Section 2-154. and
the Director may exempt information from disclosure only to the
extent that disclosure is prohibited under federal or state law.
W
Exceptions to disclosure.
To the extent allowable under state law, the
Director must not make the following readily available to the public:
ill
any
individually-attributable
reported
benchmarking
information from the first calendar year that
~
covered building
is required to benchmark; and
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No. 2-14
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individually-attributable
infonnation relating to
~
reported
benchmarking
~
covered building that contains
data
center, television studio, or trading floor that together exceeds
10% of the gross square footage of the individual building until
the Director finds that the benchmarking tool can make
adequate adjustments for these facilities. When the Director
finds
that the benchmarking tool can make
adequate
adjustments, the Director must report this data in the annual
report.
18A-43.
Regulations; penalties.
The County Executive may issue Method
ill
regulations to administer
this Article.
Any violation of this Article is
~
Class A violation.
[[Article 7. Energy Audits and Retro-Commissioning of Base Buildinf!
Systems.]]
[[18A-44.
Definitions.
ill
In this Article, the following words have the meanings indicated:
ASHRAE
means the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air­
199
conditioning Engineers, Inc.
Base
building
system
means each system or subsystem of
~
200
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202
building that
uses energy or impacts energy consumption, including:
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204
ill
ill
ill
{1}
the building envelope;
any heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system;
any conveying system;
any domestic hot water system; and
any electrical or lighting system.
205
206
ill
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BILL No. 2-14
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Base Building system
does not include any industrial process that occurs in
~
covered building or any system or subsystem owned
Qy
~
tenant (other than
~
~
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net lessee for
term of 49 years or more, including any renewal option),
~
condominium unit owner, or cooperative unit shareholder, or
subsystem for which
~
system or
tenant bears full maintenance responsibility and that
is located in the tenant's leased space or exclusively serves that leased space.
Building management system
means
~
computer-based system that monitors
and controls
~
building'S mechanical and electrical equipment, such as its
HVAC, lighting, power, fIre, and security system, including, at least, control
of the heating equipment using interior temperature sensors.
County building
means
~
covered building that is owned
Qy
the County and
for which the County regularly
Pm
all or part ofthe energy bills.
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Covered building
means
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224
225
226
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ill
1
building that exceeds 50,000 gross square feet;
ill.f.
or more buildings on the same tax identifIcation
together exceed 100,000 gross square feet; or
number that
ill.f.
or more buildings held in the condominium form of ownership that
are governed
Qy
the same board of managers and that together exceed
100,000 gross square feet.
Covered building
does not include any
L
~
b
or 3-family residential building.
Current facility requirements
means the owner's current operational needs
and requirements for
building, including temperature and humidity set
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points, operating hours, fIltration, and any integrated requirements such as
controls, warranty review, and service contract review.
Department
means the Department of Environmental Protection.
Director
means the Director ofthe Department or the Director's designee.
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BILL No. 2-14
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Energy audit
or
audit
means
£!
systematic process to identify and develop
improvements to any base building system, including any alteration of that
system and the installation of new equipment, insulation, or other generally
recognized energy efficiency technology to optimize energy performance of
the building and achieve energy savings.
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235
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238
Energy auditor
means an individual the Department authorizes to perfonn
energy audits and certify audit reports required.!.2y this Article.
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Energy management system
means
£!
system incorporating interior
temperature sensors and
£!
central processing unit and controls, which are
used to monitor and control electricity,
applicable, based on the need for heating.
.@§.,.
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steam, and oil usage, as
Energy efficiency report
means the report required under Section 18A-47.
Financial hardship
gfg
building
means
£!
building that:
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ill
ill
was included on the Department of Finance's tax lien sale list within.2
years before an energy efficiency report was due; or
is exempt from real property taxes under Maryland Code, Tax­
Property Article, Sections 7-201, 7-202, and 7-204, or any successor
provisions, and had negative revenue less expenses during the .2 tax
years before an energy efficiency report was due.
Green Building Council
means the U.S. Green Building Council, an
organization that has developed and published the LEED rating system to
measure the energy and environmental performance of
£!
building.
253
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255
LEED
refers to the series of Leadership in Energy and Environmental
Design (LEED) rating systems developed .!.2y the Green Building CounciL
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Owner
means;
258
ill
the owner of record of
£!
covered building;
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No. 2-14
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ill
ill
the net lessee in the case of
~
net lease of an entire building for
~
term
of 49 years or more, including any renewal option;
the board of directors or similar body if the covered building is
cooperative apartment or condominium corporation.
~
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Registered design professional
has
the meaning in the latest version of the
ICC International Building Code or another building code that the County
adopts.
Retro-commissioning
means
~
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systematic process applied to an existing
building that has never been commissioned to assure that the building'S
systems are designed, installed, functionally tested, and can be operated and
maintained according to the owner's operational needs.
Simple payback
means the number of years for projected annual energy
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savings to equal the amount invested in an energy conservation measure, as
determined
J2y
dividing the investment
J2y
the annual energy savings.
Space
means an area in
~
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building enclosed
Q:y
floor to ceiling walls,
partitions, windows and doors.]]
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[[18A-45.
Energy audits required.
Audit required.
ill
The owner must assure that an energy audit is
performed on the base building systems of
~
covered building before
filing an energy efficiency report required
Q:y
this Article. Except as
otherwise provided in Section 18A-49, an energy audit must be
performed
J2y
or under the supervision of an energy auditor and must
be performed in accordance with applicable regulations. The audit
process must cover the base building system and must at least
identify:
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285
ill
any reasonable measure, including any capital improvement,
that would reduce energy use or the cost of operating the
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building;
ill
for each measure, the associated annual energy savings, the cost
to implement, and the simple payback, calculated
Qy
!!
method
approved
Qy
the Department;
ill
the building's benchmarking output consistent with the United
States Environmental Protection Administration Portfolio
Manager tool or another method the Director fmds equivalent;
ill
~
break-down of energy usage
Qy
system and predicted energy
system
after any
proposed
measures
are
savings
Qy
implemented; and
ill
~
general assessment of how the major energy consummg
equipment and systems used in tenant spaces impact the energy
consumption of the base building systems, based on
representative sample of spaces.
~
®
Audit process.
The energy audit process must be at least as stringent
301
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as the Level II Energy Survey and Engineering Analysis of the 2004
edition of Procedures for Commercial Building Energy Audits
published
Qy
the ASHRAE, or another process the Director fmds
equivalent.
304
305
W
Qualifications
gf
auditor.
An energy auditor must be
~
registered
306
307
design professional with any other certification or qualification the
Director finds appropriate.
@
308
309
310
311
Contents
gf
audit report.
The energy auditor must prepare and certify
~
report of the energy audit. Except as otherwise provided in Section
18A-49, the audit report must include information relating to the audit
as required
Qy
applicable regulations, including the date when the
audit was completed and the information required
Qy
subsection
hl
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W
Compliance with landmarks laws.
The cost estimates for any covered
building that is regulated
12Y
any state or federal law regulating
landmarks or historic buildings must include all added costs necessary
for the proposed work to comply with that law.
.ill.
Timing
gf
energy audit.
Except as otherwise provided in Section
18A­
49, the energy audit must be completed no earlier than
~
years before
the date when
~
covered building's energy efficiency report is filed
~
under this Article.
(g)
Exceptions.
An
energy audit is not required if
registered design
professional certifies that the building complies with any of the
following requirements:
ill
The covered building received an EPA Energy Star label for at
least
.f.
of the 3 years before the building'S energy efficiency
report is filed.
ill
No EPA Energy Star rating is available for the building
and
~
~
registered design professional documents that the
building'S energy performance is 25 or more points better than
the performance of an average building of its
~
over
~
2-year
period during the
J.
years before an energy efficiency report is
filed, consistent with the methodology of the Leadership in
Energy and Environmental Design 2009 rating system for
Existing Buildings published
12Y
the United States Green
Building Council or other rating system or methodology for
existing buildings, as determined
Qy
the Department.
ill
The covered building received certification under the LEED
2009 rating system for Existing Buildings, or another rating
system for existing buildings the Director finds equivalent,
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~
within
filed.]]
~
years before the building's energy efficiency report is
[[18A-46.
Retro-commissioning required.
Retro-commissioning required.
The owner of
~
covered building must
W
assure that retro-commissioning is performed on the base building
system of
~
covered building before filing an energy efficiency report
as required
Qy
this Article. Except as otherwise provided in Section
18A-49, retro-commissioning must be performed
Qy
or under the
supervision of
~
retro-commissioning agent, as required
Qy
applicable
regulations issued under subsection
ihl..:
®
Regulations.
The County Executive must issue regulations requiring
that sufficient analysis, corrections and testing have been done so that
each base building system demonstrates efficient operation.
W
Contents
Q[
retro-commissioning report.
The retro-commissioning
agent must prepare and certify
~
retro-commissioning report. Each
retro-commissioning report must include information relating to the
retro-commissioning as specified in applicable regulations.
@
Timing
Q[
retro-commissioning
Except as otherwise provided
ill
Section 18A-49, each retro-commissioning must be completed no
earlier than
~
years before
~
covered building's energy efficiency
~
report is filed with the Department under this Article.
Documentation
gf
retro-commissioning.
The owner must maintain
£QPY
of the latest up-to-date equipment manual and the most recent
retro-commissioning report at every covered building and must make
either available to the Department for inspection on request.
364
365
366
ill
Exceptions.
A retro-commissioning is not required if the covered
building received certification under the LEED 2009 rating system for
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No.
2-14
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
Existing Buildings, or another rating system for existing buildings the
Department fmds equivalent, within
2.
years before the building's
energy efficiency report is filed and earned the LEED point for
Existing Building Commissioning investigation and analysis and the
LEED point for Existing Building Commissioning
implementation.]]
[[18A-47.
Energy efficiency report required.
Report required.
Except as provided in Section 18A-49, the owner of
each covered building must file an energy efficiency report for the
building during the calendar year when the report is due under this
Section and every tenth calendar year thereafter.
(Q)
W
Content q[report.
Except as otherwise provided in Section 18A-49,
each energy efficiency report must include, in
S!
format approved
Qy
the Department:
ill
ill
(£}
the building's energy audit report or documentation that an
exception applies to the building; and
the building's retro-commissioning report or documentation
that an exception applies to the building.
Due dates.
The first energy efficiency report for each covered
building in existence on July
L
2014, and for each new building must
be due, beginning with calendar year 2015, in the calendar year with
S!
final digit that is the same as the last digit of the building's property
identification number, as illustrated in the following chart:
Last
digit of
property
ill
Q
1
2.
d
4
~
§
1
~
2
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BILL
No.
2-14
number
Year
first
lEER
I
I
2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
IS
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
due
@
....
Deferral
gf
energy efficiency report.
An owner of
~
covered building
may defer submitting an energy efficiency report for
~
covered
building until the tenth year after the year identified in subsection
(£l
if the building:
ill
ill
is less than 10 years old at the beginning of its first assigned
calendar year; or
has undergone substantial rehabilitation, as certified
!2y
~
registered design professional, within 10 years before the
calendar year when an energy efficiency report is due, if at the
beginning of the calendar year the base building systems of the
building comply with County law in effect for new buildings
constructed on and after July
.L.
2010 or in effect on the date of
the substantial rehabilitation, whichever is later.
ill
Exceptions.
ill
The Director may allow an extension of time to file an energy
efficiency report if the building's owner shows that, despite the
owner's good faith efforts, the owner could not complete the
required energy audit and retro-commissioning before the due
date for the report. The Director may allow no more than
extensions of no more than one year each.
2
Any extension
allowed under this Section must not extend the scheduled due
dates for any later energy efficiency report.
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No. 2-14
412
413
ill
The Director may allow one or more annual extensions of time
to file an energy efficiency report because of financial hardship
of the building.
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
ill
Due dates for County buildings.
buildings must follow
~
The first due dates for County
staggered schedule, from calendar year 2015
through calendar year 2023, for each building in use on July.L. 2014.
The Director must add each County building opened to use after that
date to the schedule within 10 years after the Department of
Permitting Services issues the certificate of use and occupancy for the
building.
(g}
Combined audit and retro-commissioning.
An owner may perform
the audit and retro-commissioning of
~
building in
~
combined process
if that process meets all requirements of Sections 18A-45 and 18A­
46.]]
HlSA-4S.
Notice.
The Department must notify the owner of each covered building of the
requirements of this Article no later than
J.
years before the calendar year when the
covered building's energy efficiency report is due and in the calendar year before
the calendar year when the report is due.]]
([lSA-49.
Early compliance.
The Department may allow an owner of
~
covered building to comply with
this Article before the deadline specified in Section 18A-47.]]
[[1SA-50.
Regulations; penalties.
The County Executive may issue Method
ill
regulations to administer
this Article.
ill
®
Any violation ofthis Article is
~
Class A violation.]]
438
Sec.
2.
Benchmarking Work Group.
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No. 2-14
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
!ru
The Executive must convene a Benchmarking Work Group. Members
of the Work Group must include representatives from the County.
building owners and manager, industry trade associations. non-profit
organizations. and utility companies.
!hl
The Work Group must:
ill
review the application of Chapter 18A. Article 6, as added by
Section 1 of this Act. to County buildings for the reporting
period ending June 1. 2015: and
ill
submit a report to the County Council and County Executive by
September 1, 2015 with recommendations on implementing
building
benchmarking
for
privately-owned
buildings,
including any proposed amendments to County law.
Approved:
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
~
lsi
Leggett,
~
·1­
x
tive
D te
7
This is a correct copy ofCouncil action.
460
461
462
Date'
.
7
-20­